Endocannabinoid System

Discovered in 1991, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an integral system within mammalian's Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System, but the receptors found within the ECS have also been discovered throughout every major system in the body.

The primary responsibility of the ECS is to regulate balance in the body. It's function is to help mammals relax, eat, sleep, protect and forget. 

The biggest breakthrough in cannabis...

“would be the way cannabis relates to the endocannabinoid system. Basically, we have this plant that has been used for thousands of years, and this physiological system that is not just in humans. But [this breakthrough] helps explain why cannabis is such a versatile medicine with certain diseases where other pharmaceuticals are not.”  

- Dr. Ethan Russo, MD


Type of Cannabinoids

The endocannabinoid system interacts with two types of cannabinoids - endogenous cannabinoids (or endocannabinoids) and phytocannabinoids (or cannabinoids). 

Endogenous cannabinoids are naturally produced in the body and help regulate the endocannabinoid system. 

Phytocannabinoids, phyto- meaning plant, are naturally produced in plants, particularly cannabis and hemp. Phytocannabinoids are chemically similar to endogenous cannabinoids. When the endocannabinoid system is imbalanced, phytocannabinoid supplementation may support re-balancing the ECS. 

We are uncovering new endogenous and phytocannabinoids regularly. 

Cannabinoids in Cannabis

The Cannabis plant species naturally produces phytocannabinoids. Scientifically, Cannabis varieties include Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Hemp and marijuana both fall within these varieties.

Legally, Cannabis is distinguished by its levels of the intoxicating cannabinoid ∆-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆-9-THC). By definition, Cannabis containing over ∆-9-THC is defined as high THC Cannabis or marjuana. It is not federally legal. 

Cannabis containing no more than 0.3% ∆-9-THC is defined as hemp. Hemp is federally legal. OP Innovates formulates with legal hemp extracts.

     Full Spectrum
A hemp extract that includes three or more cannabinoids, terpenes and other naturally occurring plant compounds without the intentional removal of any compounds. 
OP Innovates' full spectrum products contain carefully extracted raw and more potent cannabinoids like CBDA. The finished product contains no more than 0.3% ∆-9-THC.
       Broad Spectrum
A hemp extract that includes two or more cannabinoids where the ∆-9-THC has been intentionally removed from the extract wherein the quantified ∆-9-THC levels are considered "non-detectable."
In this process, terpenes and other naturally occurring compounds are minimized too. The finished product often contains 0.01% ∆-9-THC.
       Isolated Cannabinoids
An intentionally confined single molecule derived from hemp extract. It is the most pure form of a single cannabinoid, like CBD isolate. 
Isolated cannabinoids are often used in pharmaceutical applications because of their ability to limit activity of other cannabinoids and important plant compounds like terpenes. Isolated cannabinoids are 99.4% pure or more. 
Terpenes or terpenoids are aromatic compounds found in a variety of plants. These compounds give the plant its scent or smell. For instance, the terpene alpha-pinene is the smell in Pine trees and the terpene limonene is the smell in lemons. Cannabis also contains high concentrations of terpenes. Based on scientific data, these terpenes are believed to interact with cannabinoids creating specific therapeutic benefits. This interaction is called the Entourage Effect. 
"Terpenoids are essential oil components of cannabis that are very pharmacologically active, even in small concentrations."
- Dr. Ethan Russo, MD

Entourage Effect

A concept first described in its relation to endocannabinoids after researchers observed that inactive chemicals combined with primary components like CBD or THC had increasing effects against inflammation. The concept then expanded to further research justifying that the overall effect of the combination of compounds was more powerful than individual components. 

"The case for Cannabis synergy via the 'entourage effect' is currently sufficiently strong as to suggest that one molecule is unlikely to match the therapeutic and even industrial potential of Cannabis itself as a phytochemical factory."

- Dr. Ethan Russo, MD

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